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Tree multicast strategies in mobile, multihop wireless networks


Tree multicast is a well established concept in wired networks. Two versions, per-source tree multicast (e.g., DVMRP) and shared tree multicast (e.g., Core Based Tree), account for the majority of the wireline implementations. In this paper, we extend the tree multicast concept to wireless, mobile, multihop networks for applications ranging from ad hoc networking to disaster recovery and battlefield. The main challenge in wireless, mobile networks is the rapidly changing environment. We address this issue in our design by: (a) using “soft state”; (b) assigning different roles to nodes depending on their mobility (2-level mobility model); (c) proposing an adaptive scheme which combines shared tree and per-source tree benefits, and (d) dynamically relocating the shared tree Rendezvous Point (RP). A detailed wireless simulation model is used to evaluate various multicast schemes. The results show that per-source trees perform better in heavy loads because of the more efficient traffic distribution; while shared trees are more robust to mobility and are more scalable to large network sizes. The adaptive tree multicast scheme, a hybrid between shared tree and per-source tree, combines the advantages of both and performs consistently well across all load and mobility scenarios. The main contributions of this study are: the use of a 2-level mobility model to improve the stability of the shared tree, the development of a hybrid, adaptive per-source and shared tree scheme, and the dynamic relocation of the RP in the shared tree.

Paper: PDF file of paper

Information & Date

Mobile Networks and Applications , , October. 1999


Mario Gerla
Ching-Chuan Chiang
Lixia Zhang