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"Direction" Forward Routing for Highly Mobile Ad Hoc Networks


Popular ad hoc routing protocols such as DSDV and AODV use “predecessor” based forwarding, namely, the packet is forwarded to the “predecessor” that advertised the shortest path to destination during the last update. However, if the “predecessor” moves, the routing table entry becomes invalid and “predecessor” based forwarding fails! To overcome the stale forward table problem, in this paper we propose a novel packet forwarding scheme called “direction” forwarding (DFR). When an update is received, a node records the “geographical direction” to where the update came from. When “predecessor” forwarding fails, the packet is forwarded to the “most promising” neighbor in the recorded direction. If the network is sufficiently dense and the routing algorithm includes periodic refresh from destination, direction forwarding will recover from most “predecessor” failures due to motion. We evaluate DFR in a LANMAR routing scenario where the direction to each Landmark is periodically refreshed. Through simulation we show that DFR considerably enhances LANMAR performance in large, mobile network scenarios.

Paper: PDF file of paper

Information & Date

Ad Hoc & Sensor Wireless Networks Journal, , January. 2006


Yeng-Zhong Lee
Mario Gerla
Jason Chen
Jiwei Chen